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Square Roots and Radical Expressions
Solving Radical Equations
Simplifying Radical Expressions
Irrational Numbers in General and Square Roots in Particular
Roots of Polynomials
Simplifying Radical Expressions
Exponents and Radicals
Products and Quotients Involving Radicals
Roots of Quadratic Equations
Radical Expressions
Radicals and Rational Exponents
Find Square Roots and Compare Real Numbers
Radicals and Rational Exponents
Theorems on the Roots of Polynomial Equations
Simplifying Radical Expressions
Exponents and Radicals
Properties of Exponents and Square Roots
Solving Radical Equations
Rational Exponents and Radicals,Rationalizing Denominators
Rational Exponents and Radicals,Rationalizing Denominators
Quadratic Roots
Exponents and Roots
Multiplying Radical Expressions
Exponents and Radicals
Solving Radical Equations
Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring and Extracting Roots
Newton's Method for Finding Roots
Roots of Quadratic Equations Studio
Roots, Radicals, and Root Functions
Review division factoring and Root Finding
Simplifying Radical Expressions
Multiplying and Simplifying Radical Expressions
Multiplication and Division of Radicals
Radical Equations
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Quadratic Roots

Assigned: Wednesday, January 24, 2007
Due: Friday, January 26, 2007
No extensions!

Summary: In this assignment, you will explore the use of Scheme to compute the square roots of a
quadratic equation.

Purposes: To give you exprience writing expressions in “Scheme form” (prefix notation and
parenthesized). To get you used to doing daily homework assignments, particularly submitting the
assignments. To demonstrate the utility of Scheme as an extended calculator.

Expected Time: One hour.

Collaboration: You should work in groups of two or three. You may not work alone. You may not work
in groups of four or more. You may discuss the assignment with anyone you wish. You may obtain help
from anyone you wish, but you should clearly document that help.

Submitting: Email me your work. More details below.

Warning: So that this exercise is a learning assignment for everyone, I may spend class time publicly
critiquing your work.

Background: Roots of Polynomials

One advantage of learning a programming language is that you can automate the more tedious
computations you encounter. We begin your work in Scheme by considering one such computation.

One of the more painful computations students are often asked to do in high-school mathematics courses is
to compute the roots of a polynomial. As you may recall, a root is a value for which the value of the
polynomial is 0. For example, the roots of 3x2 -5x+2 are 2/3 and 1. (See the end of this assignment for a

There is, of course, a formula for computing the roots of a quadratic polynomial of the form ax2+bx+c. In
a narrative style, it’s often expressed

Negative b plus or minus the square root of b squared minus four a c all over two a.

In more traditional mathematical notation, we might write

(-b +/- sqrt(b2 - 4ac))/2a


Our goal, of course, is to convert all of these ideas to a Scheme program.

We can express the coefficients of a particular polynomial by using define expressions.

(define a 3)
(define b -5)
(define c 1)

If we also define x, we can evaluate the polynomial.

(define x 5)
(define value-of-polynomial (+ (* a x x) (* b x) c))

Of course, since we’ve defined a, b, and c, we can also compute the roots. Here is a bit of incorrect code
to compute roots.

(define root1 (+ (- b) (sqrt b)))
(define root2 (- (- b) (sqrt b)))

Your goal, of course, is to correct the code for root1 and root2 so that we correctly compute the roots
of the polynomial.

You can test the correctness of your solution by trying something like

(define value-of-polynomial-at-root1 (+ (* a root1 root1) (* b root1) c))
(define value-of-polynomial-at-root2 (+ (* a root2 root2) (* b root2) c))

If your solution is correct, each of these values should be 0 (or close to 0).

Testing Your Work

In the past, we’ve seen students test their quadratic-root formula by trying essentially arbitrary values for
a, b, and c. Unfortunately, many arbitrary quadratic polynomials have no real roots. Hence, we suggest
that you test your work by building polynomials for which you know the roots. How? Create your
polynomials by multiplying two linear polynomials, (px+q)*(rx+s). You know that the roots of this
polynomial will be -q/p and -s/r.

Important Evaluation Criteria

The primary evaluation criterion for this assignment is, of course, correctness. That is, I will check to
make sure that you expressed the quadratic formula correctly in Scheme.

Particularly elegant solutions may earn a modicum grade boost. Conciseness is one aspect of elegance.
Formatting of your code for clarity, using horizontal and vertical whitespace is another. You may discover

Submitting Your Homework

Once you have ensured that all of the definitions in the definitions window are correct, please submit your
definitions in the body of an email message.

In particular, select all your definitions and then copy them (typically, using Copy from the File item).
Open a mail composition window, either in Icedove or Outlook Express, and paste the definitions into that
window. Add your names at the top of the window. Make the subject of the email CSC151 Homework 2.
Send the mail.

Sample Roots

In the narrative above, we claimed that the roots of 3x2 -5x+2 are 2/3 and 1. Let’s see if that’s true.

3*(2/3)*(2/3) - 5*2/3 + 2
= 12/9 - 10/3 + 2
= 4/3 - 10/3 + 2
= (4-10)/3 + 2
= -6/3 + 2
= -2 + 2
= 0


3*1*1 - 5*1 + 2
= 3 - 5 + 2
= 0

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